What is PPE?Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, gloves, face shields, goggles, surgical masks, respirators, and other equipment designed to protect the wearer from injury or help prevent wearer exposure to infection. PPE is commonly used in health care settings such as hospitals, doctors’ offices, and clinical labs as well as food production facilities and food service settings. PPE acts as a barrier between infectious materials(such as viral and bacterial contaminants) and the skin, mouth, nose, or eyes (mucous membranes). The barrier provided by the PPE has the potential to block the transmission of contaminants from blood, body fluids, or respiratory secretions when used properly. PPE may also protect patients who are at high risk for contracting infections through a surgical procedure. When used properly and with other infection control practices such as hand washing, using alcohol-based sanitizers, and covering coughs and sneezes, PPE minimizes the spread of infection from one person to another. Effective use of PPE includes properly removing and disposing of contaminated PPE to prevent exposing both the wearer and other people to infection. The following are examples of items that make up personal protective equipment (PPEs); Helmet: An helmet covers the entire head with a rear that covers the base of the skull and a protective section over the front of the chin. Gloves: It is a covering for the hand-worn for protection against dirt and typically having separate parts for each finger and the thumb. Face shield: A face shield is an item of PPE, aims to protect the wearer’s entire face from hazards or potentially infectious materials. Goggles: This is a form of eye-protective, that usually enclose or protects the area surrounding the eye in order to prevent particles from striking the eyes. Coveralls: these are protective cloth-like material worn to cover every part of the body. They can be disposable or non-disposable. Surgical Mask: It is also known as a face mask, is intended to be worn by health professionals during health care procedures. It is designed to prevent cross-infection between patients and health personnel, stopping or reducing bacteria shed in liquid droplets, aerosols from the wearer’s mouth and nose. It is disposable. Respirator: It is a PPE designed to protect the wearer from inhaling hazardous particles. The presence of filters makes it very useful and protective against coronavirus.
A surgical mask or a respirator?There are differences between a surgical mask and a respirator and the differences are:
- Surgical masks do not effectively filter small particles from the air while a respirator protects from exposure to airborne particles. In health care, it protects from exposure to biological aerosols including viruses and bacteria.
- A face mask is a loose-fitting mask that covers the nose and mouth area while a respirator is a tight-fitting mask that creates a facial seal.
- Face masks are designed to be used as one-way protection only i.e only capturing large particles or droplets existing from the wearer and preventing them from being spread to the environment.
- Respirators are designed to be used in a two-way protection i.e filtering the air entering and exiting the wearer at a level of efficiency designated by the respiration or filter.
Recently, a medical doctor died of heart-related issues in a Federal Medical Center in Nigeria because they don’t have a defibrillator.
This loss could have been prevented.
If a doctor can lose his life in a Federal Medical center, then what is the plight of the patients?
In many parts of the world, there are hospitals running on minimal medical supplies.
Their medical professionals work as optimistic as they can to supply the very best care readily available, but frequently, it is inadequate.
Hospitals need to be ready for anything that may come through the doors.
That's why keeping key pieces of medical equipment on-hand at all times is so essential to offer complete care.
In order to supply the extensive treatment for clients, there is a basic set of devices and equipment that all medical facilities should have ready.
This is a list of essential medical equipment that can frequently be reconditioned as well as brand-new, permitting medical facilities to manage their patients;
1. Hospital Stretchers
Carrying patients is very essential when handling emergencies.
This tool is an absolute essential for health centers to keep on hand as clients pass through their care.
Frequently utilized in life-threatening circumstances such as heart arrhythmia or tachycardia, defibrillators bring back regular rhythm to the heart.
They are necessary tools that a medical facility always needs backups for.
3. Anesthesia Machines
Anesthesia devices are created to supply a precise and continuous supply of medical gases to maintain a correct level of anesthesia to a patient.
Modern anesthesia makers consist of added tools such as a ventilator, suction unit, and patient-monitoring gadgets.
4. Client Monitors
Patient screens are basic pieces of medical equipment that keep accurate track of a client's condition and state of health during and after surgery.
They are needed for adults, pediatric & neonatal patients.
Health center sterilizers kill all kinds of microbial life consisting of fungi, germs, infections, spores, and all other entities present on surgical tools and other medical products.
An autoclave disinfects equipment and supplies utilizing high-pressure saturated steam for a short amount of time.
6. EKG/ECG Machines
Electrocardiogram (EKG) records the electrical activity of the heart over an amount of time and enables health care providers to keep track of the general rhythm of the heart and recognizes any irregularities.
7. Surgical Tables
Surgical tables are necessities for a medical facility.
For patient preparation, surgeries and healing, these pieces of equipment are essential.
8. Blanket and Fluid Warmers
Body temperature levels that are not kept throughout surgical treatment can cause post-surgical problems such as perioperative hypothermia, extended hospitalization and recovery, and an increase in the danger of infection.
That's why blanket warmers and fluid warmers are so important for healthcare facilities to have.
9. Electrosurgical Units
An electrosurgical unit is used in surgical treatment to cut, coagulate, or otherwise modify tissue, frequently to restrict the quantity of blood circulation to an area and increase visibility during surgery.
This device is vital to cauterizing and minimizing blood loss during surgery.
10. Surgical Lights
Surgical lights are an obligatory part of any surgical setting to help surgeons work under sufficient lighting conditions.
Defibrillators, client screens, surgical tables, EKGs, anesthesia devices, sterilizers, lights, ultrasounds, and electrosurgical systems, blanket/fluid warmers are all needed pieces of hospital devices.
Keeping these on hand is critical to the functional success of a hospital and the healthcare delivered within it.
About Digi Clinicaid Nigeria Ltd
Our aim at Digi Clinicaid Limited is to outsource the supply and services of medical equipment, medical devices, instruments and consumables in the public and private health sectors in Nigeria to manufacturers and suppliers with a global reputation.
Clinicaid.com.ng is an online platform that connects our clients to the manufacturers and suppliers of instruments, equipment, and materials used in the practice of medicine
Our team is actually made up of medical doctors and individuals with extensive knowledge and experience in the medical environment who work and stand by their oath to facilitate the saving of lives and the physical and mental advancement of our clients and their patients.
Before I talk about the most common dental procedures in Nigeria, let’s talk about why people visit a dentist. People have different reasons for visiting a dentist. Most times, especially in Nigeria, pain from toothache drives them to the dental clinic.
Poor dental education is the reason why most people only visit the dentist when they are in pain.
Anxiety, lengthy period on dental chair, specious information passed around from ignorant citizens and previous unpleasant experience on a dental chair are some of the reasons militating against visits to the dental clinic.
However, advent of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) has improved visits to the dentist lately, this can be arguably due to people’s resolve to utilize their monthly or yearly contribution, as the case may be, to these HMOs.
There are lots of dental procedures that anyone that goes to the dentist can experience. Here are the most common dental procedures in Nigeria.
This is the removal of teeth from the alveolar bone under local anaesthesia (LA). Extractions can be simple or surgical.
For a simple extraction, after it is confirmed that the LA is working (the patient feels numbness around the tooth to be extracted), an elevator is used to luxate the tooth after which an extraction forceps is used to pull the tooth out.
The procedure is a bit more advanced when it comes to surgical extractions as the tooth area has to be incised and the tooth drilled out with motor- driven burs, once the tooth is removed, the incision is then sutured with the right sutures.
Fillings are restorative dental treatments to repair minimal to moderate tooth fractures, tooth decay and damaged surfaces of teeth.
Fillings are conservative procedures. They are utilized to prevent further damage to teeth.
Different materials for fillings are used depending on the location of the tooth, extent of tooth decay or damage and preference of the patient or the dentist.
Examples of filling materials are but not limited to composite, glass ionomer cement(GIC), MTA, Zinc Oxide Eugenol cement, Zinc Phosphate cement etc.
3. Root canal treatment (RCT)
RCT, as commonly used by dentists, is a procedure used to salvage teeth that otherwise would have to be extracted.
It involves the total removal of the pulp tissue which supplies the tooth with blood and nerves. This procedure involves 2 to 3 visits to the dentist after which it is always advised to crown (put a cap on) the tooth.
This can be done both in the clinic and the dental lab. A dental crown is a tooth-shaped cap placed over a tooth to restore its shape, strength, and improve its appearance.
Crowns are cemented after the tooth is prepared, and they fully encase the visible or coronal part of the tooth (the portion above the gum line). There are different types of crowns namely Porcelain- Fused with metal crown (PFMC), Metal crown, Zirconia crown, Gold crown etc.
A denture is a removable replacement for missing teeth. Dentures can be partial or complete depending on number of missing teeth.
An impression is usually taken in the the clinic, cast with dental stone to make a model then sent to the dental lab for the fabrication of the denture. When the removable denture returns from the lab, the dentist then fits it in the patient’s mouth.
6. Gum surgery
Infection to the gum may lead to surgery to the gum. Gum surgery due to gingival recession is as a result of the use of a hard brush and over zealous tooth brushing. This involves raising of flaps or gum grafts under local anesthesia.
Braces are orthodontic appliances that are fixed on the surfaces of teeth to align and straighten them. They help to position teeth with regard to the patient’s bite thereby improving aesthetics and facial appearance of the patient.
Braces corrects a lot of dental anomalies by a constant force which over time move teeth into the desired position. There are different types of Braces with relative cost.
8. Groove sealant
This procedure involves the application of a thin, plastic restorative material on the occlusal (chewing ) surfaces of the teeth. Sealants are usually applied on deep grooves on molars and premolars to reduce food stagnation thereby preventing tooth decay.
This procedure is mostly done for children. It is a treatment that gives children a good impression of a visit to a dentist because it is painless.
9. Scaling and polishing
This is becoming the treatment most enlightened individuals visit a dental clinic for.
It involves the use of dental instruments or an ultrasonic machine to remove plaque, calculus, and stains attached to the surfaces of teeth, then polished using prophylactic paste which contains higher fluoride level than toothpastes.
Patients are advised to do S&P, as fondly called, at least once a year.
Bridges are used to replace missing teeth. They are cemented permanently. They are a better option compared to a removable denture.
They use the support of the two adjacent teeth of the space created by the missing tooth or teeth. The dentist prepares the adjacent teeth to accept a cap which will hold and act as the support for the replacement.
There are different types of bridges which are employed by the dentist according the location of the missing teeth or space created.
These are used to replace missing teeth too. The advantage of implant over bridge is that an implant only utilizes the space as the adjacent teeth are not disturbed.
The treatment involves an implant being sunk and surgically positioned into the bone which acts as the root. And an appropriate crown fabricated and cemented on the implant.
12. Teeth whitening
This procedure also is gaining ground as more and more people become conscious of their looks. Thanks to advertisement people watch on the TV showing sparkling white teeth.
It involves the use of chemicals or solutions to improve the shade of teeth colour.
There are two types. In-office teeth whitening which is done by the dentist using some equipment including teeth whitening machine in the clinic and take-home kit which is used by patient at home. In-office teeth whitening gives an instant result while the take-home kit takes some time before result is seen.
People go to the dentist to get veneers for chipped, decayed and stained teeth. Veneers are strong thin pieces or facings of ceramic or resin material that are bonded to teeth. They restore aesthetics and also help to close gaps between teeth.